My evaluative tools are two questionnaires and an interview. The questionnaires were designed using Survey Monkey as it was advised at a previous tutorial given that it is free, easy-to-use and gives some data analysis. I also found it useful as I could send links to pupils for them to complete at their own convenience. This was important as I didn’t want any input or potential bias at this stage and it also made it less invasive for the participants.
The questionnaires contained eight questions to be completed both before and after the physiotherapy sessions which formed the basis of the intervention for my project. The questions were the same on both questionnaires in order to compare results and require participants to click just once per question on a Likert scale format. My initial research on data gathering showed that Likert scales are an increasingly popular way to get mass opinions quickly.
The interview questions conducted after the second questionnaire allowed participants to expand on their thoughts and feelings and responses will be used alongside the questionnaires to inform the research. I have then chosen to use thematic analysis focussing on specific relevant points and/or interesting or unusual responses. The reason for my choice is because although thematic analysis is a rarely-acknowledged method of analysis it is a widely-used qualitative analytic method within psychology (Univeristy of Bristol), the key area of my research. It is an accessible and flexible approach to analysing data.
Comparison of Questionnaires
Q1: On a scale of 0-10 with 10 being the most painful and 0 being no pain at all, how much pain are you currently in when exercising?
Before – There was a range from 3-9 of recorded pain before physiotherapy. 7 was the most common response with 33.33% of respondents citing it as the degree of pain they were in. The average was 6.2.
After – The range after physiotherapy was between 2 and 6 with an even split of two respondents each on 2, two on 4 and two on 6. The pain average had dropped to 4.
Q2: On a scale of 0-10 with 10 being the most painful and 0 no pain at all, how much pain are you currently in when sitting?
Before – This question had a pain response rate from 0-7, the most common was 3 (33.33% of respondents) and the average is also 3.
After – The pain response rate for this question was 0-4, the average being 2.3.
Q3: My injury negatively affects my mood.
Before – Respondents were asked to rate this statement in accordance with their own experiences from a scale of strongly agree at one end, to strongly disagree at the other. The responses were split ranging from strongly agree to disagree but with nobody choosing strongly disagree perhaps suggesting that to some degree we are all negatively affected by injuries.
After – This time the results ranged from agree to disagree, no respondent choosing the two extreme ranges. The perhaps surprising result was that 50% of respondents said they agreed that the injury was still negatively affecting them – the same number as in the before survey.
Q4: My injury makes me frustrated.
Before – This was the strongest response so far with four respondents agreeing with this statement and two strongly agreeing.
After – Four respondents still agreed they were frustrated but the level of frustration overall decreased, nobody strongly disagreeing, one respondent with a neutral response and one disagreeing – they were effectively no longer frustrated.
Q5: My injury negatively affects my self-esteem.
Before – This result was completely split down the middle with three respondents agreeing and three respondents disagreeing that their injury negatively affected self-esteem.
After – This was the most altered response so far with nobody now thinking their self-esteem was negatively affected. This seems to be the biggest influence the physiotherapy has had on the psychology of the injured dancers. 50% neither agreed nor disagreed, 33.33% disagreed and 16.67% strongly disagreed.
Q6: My injury motivates me positively.
Before – This statement generated a three way response: two respondents each for agree, neither agree nor disagree and strongly disagree.
After – One respondent now strongly agrees that their injury has motivated them positively, three neither agree nor disagree and two still disagree, although nobody now strongly disagrees so their does appear to have been a slight positive shift.
Transcription of Interview Questions
Q1: Explain the nature of your injury and how it has made you feel.
“I had an ankle injury and I did that due to dance and it made me feel quite upset because it was before my exam and I felt a bit stressed out because I couldn’t do everything I needed to in order to prepare.”
“Torn ligaments on my ankle. It just made me feel upset because I couldn’t dance.”
“At the time of the injury it was quite annoying because I wasn’t allowed to do any sports. I couldn’t really do a lot on my feet because if I did it would just get worse so I just had to rest it. I had torn ligaments in my ankle.”
“I had badly sprained my ankle and was having mobility issues which was really difficult because I am a highland dancer and it meant performing certain steps was really painful and I couldn’t perform to the best of my ability. It was frustrating I guess.”
“I had a sore knee that hurt when I danced or ran. It made me a bit frustrated because it stopped me from doing things.”
“So it was at dancing I pulled my hamstring away from the bone. At first I didn’t know if I should do anything about it so I was just like getting on with it. Obviously it was sore but I was just like going to dancing. It obviously annoyed me but I just thought that it was just a small injury like it happens to most people that play sports and stuff so you just get on with it and it gets better.”
Q2: What causes you to feel negatively about your injury, if anything?
“Because I can’t like do everything to the best of my ability because my injuries are like making things a lot harder because I’m in a lot of pain.”
“The fact that I can’t dance because I was out for weeks. It makes me feel upset.”
“It had quite a negative effect because I wasn’t allowed to do anything so I was just sitting about and just waiting for it to get better for about 6-8 weeks so it obviously led to me being bored and just feeling like there was nothing I could really do to help it.”
“Not being able to dance to the best of my ability makes me feel bad and I guess frustrated because I know I am better than my performances with the injury were showing. Does that make sense?”
“I felt negatively because I couldn’t do things. I had to stop doing a lot. It was frustrating.
“Because it stopped you from doing certain stuff because it was like too sore to do or like you were worried it would maybe make it worse.”
Q3: Do you feel the physiotherapy has helped you cope psychologically with your injury? Explain.
“Yes because after I got the physio it made me feel a lot more confident because I knew that it helped me so I was a lot more confident with my dancing.”
“Yes, because it made me more motivated to get back up and dance.”
“ I feel that physio definitely did help in a sense because if I didn’t have it it would probably have taken a bit longer for my ankle to get better but then again there was nothing really that I could do much about, even with physio I just had to wait for it to get better.”
“Yes because I could see and feel that I was making good progress and so I felt like I was on the right track and would eventually get better.”
“Yeah, a bit. It just did, I don’t really know how.”
“Yeah because you had someone there to help you and show you things. She gave you things that would help and told you like if you do this this might make you feel better. I suppose it did a wee bit.”
I now have all the material I need in order to conduct a thorough thematic analysis and critically reflect on the findings.